Globalization is a gradual process that has taken place for hundreds of years, but has increasingly speeded up enormously over the 21st century. Globalization is intensification of political, cultural activities and social-economic and their worldwide effects that can be negative or positive on groups of people, individuals, and entire societies. It has brought about global investment patterns change through postmodern global conditions (Giulianotti, & Robertson, 2006). Also, it can be defined as the process by which the world is becoming internationally integrated as a massive increase of trade culture exchange.
Through globalization world has become one that people can communicate and share each other cultures. Globalization has increased culture exchange through travelling from one country to another, trading through importation and exportation of goods and services in hours or days. Many people are in huge global economy in such a way that through cell phone communication and internet, something that happens in one area of the world is known in the worldwide within hours. It has improved the production because many companies are becoming multinational corporations with subsidiaries in many countries. Globalization has many functions such as country being dependent on the global economy, a company operating in more than one country, and increased international buying and selling of surplus product.
But, globalization has the following demerits such as it does not reduce gap between the world poorest countries and the world richest countries (Payne, 2007). There are exploitation of the less developed country and weaker peoples of the world by the rich country who feel they are superior. Poor countries are price taker from rich countries and not price makers because they are not allowed to put price tag on goods and services hence they are vulnerable to manipulations by those who control the economic system to suit their own interests.
Insecurity is act of being open to danger or feeling open to threat (Sernau, 2012). Also it may mean that globalization has open many countries into unstable condition of being not protected. Human beings are not protected any more by the globalization but it has opened threat to them. Human security is always in people minds because as it can affect them physically and mentally. It’s mostly concerned on how people adapt in their prevailing environment conditions in a society or in a country. The effects of globalization to individuals, groups of people, or communities are increase in poverty, increase in hunger mainly called food insecurity, disease posing health insecurity, and violent conflicts that pose community insecurity, among others.
According to Scott (2012), globalization of food as brought many diseases to human through additives in the food. Such disease is cancer brought about by storage chemicals in the canned food. For example, in 1996, Japanese imported 200,000 tones of food which had 88 dangerous additives chemicals in the food. Infected meat and hazardous chemicals are creating new health threats to the consumers. Hence, this has posed human insecurity to diseases such as cancer due to chemicals present to foods. Also, globalization has been known to favor market and export of goods produced by agriculture by the less developed countries (Wilhelmina, Joost, George, & Guido, 2010). It promotes large scale film with high levels of advanced technology, and increasing modern food marketing operations such as packaged foods.
According to Steger (2013), globalization on human security has impact on developing countries culture. Also, the pace economic globalization is growing in many states it adversely affecting status quo. Globalization is a process characterized by more than one same trend such as global political, culture and economic integrations processes and disintegration with insecurity implications. Globalization has and is producing many good and bad effects on culture change in developed countries. It’s because globalization has been unequally or unfairly distributed among citizens, groups, communities and states at large that makes up the international system of change. To some people and some countries globalization has eliminated a social contract. It’s also accompanied by a strong perception that economic globalization results to disorganized capitalism. However, transnational and global forces generate human insecurity. Hence, human insecurity is an impact of rapid socio-economic and political change from globalization.
Globalization of Poverty and Unemployment
The impact of economic globalization on many less developed and developing economies has often resulted in limited benefits to the majority of citizens, communities, and country in large. Workers at multinationals companies nowadays are lowly paid due to globalization and have little job security, thus they can lose their jobs any time. Advanced technology in many developing countries has reduced employment to the citizens because one machine can do the same work that more than hundred workers were doing. Meaning that, able, potential and willing workers are left unemployed in the society which may increase poverty level, increase in crime, among other in the less developed countries. Also, it means globalization is increasing poverty instead of eradicating it to people thus creating human insecurity (Ellwood, 2001).
Globalization has increased insecurity in many countries in recent years. Many political leaders are being assassinated by snipers using high technology tools due to political decision making. Opponents do such a thing for self inner interest. Such as, to rule a certain community without competition or somebody who go against it (Ellwood, 2001). Also, terrorist are using global technology to bomb different places in the world. Terrorist use small computer controlled airplane to survey areas of intended purpose. They use computers to hijack information. They also use controlled computer small airplanes to bomb their target due to political differences between countries.
Health of people is the major concern of the government. Due to globalization there are trafficking of drugs around the globe. Rich people are using different technologies to transport drugs which affect people especially young people (Steger, 2013). With modern transportation around the world diseases such as Ebola can be potentially transferred from one country to another within a few seconds. Also, there are lifestyle diseases affecting healthy change of people through globalization of advertisement and marketing of junk food to people. Global advertisements and marketing has spread urge of people to take those food mostly to babies causing disease such as obesity. Also, HIV and AIDS have been spread by travelers to the most remote areas due to high transport technology. But, on other hand globalization is good has the emerging modern technologies help nurses and doctors to respond to urgent health matters quickly.
Global inequalities in many countries society and citizens are due to globalization processes that have a long-term effect to people (Barnett and Adger, 2007). Long time a go it began as colonial dependence but nowadays it has expanded to financial position of an industry dependence characterized by increasing foreign imported goods and services development and advanced technological industrial dependence. This is because both the international relationship and the internal structures of force the developing countries buy and sell their produce at markets of the rich nations. In other words, globalization has adverse effects on citizens, communities, and entire societies that threaten human security in all its boundaries. On other hand people should understand globalization has help people to trade and get what they can not produce in their own countries. It promotes peace among countries, improve infrastructure such as communication channels through improved cell phones and people benefits from interchange of good culture and beliefs in a society to another. Lastly, it makes economy grow at fast rate as it increases income through taxation of imported goods and services from one country to another. Hence raise funds for more development in a developing country and less developed countries.