Jan 24, 2020 in Research
Children Education in Syria

Striving to assure the protection of the physical and emotional needs of every human being the mankind instituted the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR). It is a set of legal regulations that are applicable worldwide. The UDHR represents "recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world" (1948). Nevertheless, as the mass media reveals, the violation of the human rights and freedoms remains a topical issue in the contemporary world. An explicit example of the failure to protect people is the Syrian children's deprivation of their right for life, safety and education. This paper is aimed at exploring and discussing the causes and effects of the deprived children education in Syria linking the researched insights to the UDHR and assessing what the world community does to eliminate this violation.

To begin with, it is appropriate to survey and comprehend the historical background that stipulated the impossibility of receiving an adequate education in Syria. An International Network for Education in Emergences (INEE) depicts that the Syrian national conflict started in 2011 "with the outbreak of anti-government protest". The ruthless response of government encouraged the opposition to form the armed organizations. Thereafter, in 2013, the presence of Islamic State (IS) became more prominent, which deteriorated the conflict. As a result, in 2014 IS captured about one third of the Syrian lands in the North of the state. The Syrian government claims that it fights terrorism and promises to clean the territory till the end of 2015. It goes without saying that the military confrontation at the national level disabled studying in the local educational establishments.

 
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Detecting the magnitude of the human rights violation it is necessary to refer to the statistic. In particular, according to "Save the Children, CfBT Education Trust (CfBT), and the American Institutes for Research (AIR)" about 3 million of the Syrian youth is currently deprived the right for education. Simultaneously, many people have to leave their lands. Consider the case, it is estimated that around 4 million of the Syrians had to leave their state among them there were 5.6 million of pupils and preschoolers. What makes the things even worse is that the today's Syrian schools often possess the lethal danger for the young attendants and their teachers. Consider the statistics, "between January and December 2014 alone there were at least 68 attacks on schools across Syria, reported Mr. Boulierac" (UN News Centre, n. d.). It is reported that the attacks killed about "160 children and injured 343"(UN News Centre, n. d.). In this regard, one should comprehend that the real number of victims among young is expected to be higher (UN News Centre, n. d.). Undoubtedly, the life-threatening conditions and the absence of the basic necessities complicate the endeavor to educate children aside schools.

Moreover, in the families that remain in Syria there are about 2 million children who live in inaccessible areas, which makes it impossible to provide them with the humanitarian help including teaching. For instance, the witnesses testify that only about one fourth of the Syrian children who remain in country can attend "tent schools run by a local humanitarian agency". It is necessary to clarify that the necessity of tent school is predefined by the fact that about 20% of the local educational establishments are destroyed or being used in military purposes. Besides, during the last 4 years of military conflicts this country lost nearly 20% of teachers. As a result, the locals experience a considerable scarcity of educators. In these terms, one can rightfully deduce that children education in Syria is an explicit example of the world community's failure to assure the rights and freedoms stated in the UDHR. The next section is aimed at discussing the implications of the education deprivation in the today's Syrian society.

First and foremost, it is appropriate to define that the negative outcomes for the Syrian youth, as well for the entire state, will be assessed from the economic, social, psychological and biological perspectives. In particular, the report called The Cost of War emphasizes the economic harassments created by the deprivation of education in Syria. It states that to repair the damaged educational system in Syria including the restoration of buildings, equipment, and workforce will cost 3 billion dollars (The Cost of War, n. d.). Moreover, in a long-run the negative impact of "Syrian children never returning to school could be could be as much as 5.4% of GDP, which equates to almost £1.5 billion ($2.18)" (The Cost of War, n. d.). Without doubt, in terms of Syrian economy, it is a great loss that will result in the further worsening of the local's life quality.

Apart from that, in a broader geographic meaning, the inhibition of Syria's economic development is expected to negatively affect the economies of the neighbored states. Specifically, the financial stability of the Middle East can be compromised even further. Firstly, it is stipulated by the fact that the approximate countries such as "Lebanon, Jordan, Iraq, Turkey and Egypt" spends their state funds on providing humanitarian help to Syrian children and their families who left their native lands. Secondly, current low level of Syrian education is expected to lead to the lack or even absence of the high-qualified specialists who can help rebuilding the Syrian economy. Thus, the international trading between the countries will be postponed. What makes the things even worse is that the discussed deprivation of human rights indirectly provokes the strengthening of IS, which becomes a serious threat for the entire world. Therefore, it is appropriate to presume that the deprivation of education has serious negative outcomes in a short perspective, but the corresponding implications are even worse in the medium and long-run.

Furthermore, denied education raises a number of social issues. To be more precise, the absence of classes means that a child has nothing to be busy with, or even can be left without adults' supervision. As a result, children are at risk of developing the deviant behaviors, which may complicate their socialization in the future. In addition, being left without adults' attention children may become the victims of sexual assaults or abuse. What is more, less serious, but also significant social issue is the use of child labor (The Cost of War, n. d.). Unfortunately, high level of poverty and lack of basic necessities engages the development of unethical business practices. Thus, in today's Syria the absence of classes may encourage the practices of involving the minors into working process even if it has potential danger for a child's health and well-being. Besides, as it is known, the lack of education is positively related with another social issue, -- early marriages. Alternatively, young boys can be forced to armed groups. Without doubt, the above-discussed social issues stress the seriousness of the situation for the Syrian youth.

Scrutinizing to what extent the denied education can affect the lives' of the young Syrians, it is natural to presume that the related economic and social issues contribute to the emergence of psychological and biological problems in children's development. Consider the rationale, during the process of studying child's brain develop the neuron connections that are vital for the healthy mentality. Thus, in a case, if the education does not induce the development of cognitive abilities, they may be formed deficiently and/or improperly. Besides, education arms children with the necessary insights about the surrounding world and causal relations; consequently, if a child does not get the needed knowledge, it may lead to serious health issues, injuries and even death. Therefore, the denied education should be considered as a biological problem.

Undoubtedly, the issues that were highlighted above are connected with the negative psychological implications of the violation of human rights for education and free access towards information. In particular, Syrian children lose "the sense of stability" because their school life and communication with peers is compromised. As a result, they may obtain psychological traumas from inability to fulfill their need for knowledge, achievements, and communication. Besides, becoming older Syrian children are doomed to recognize that they cannot successfully compete at the labor market. Therefore, they may feel miserable and inferior while comparing themselves with peers. Given the complexity of the above-discussed issues, it is appropriate to state that the violation of children's right to study will result in the lessened number of high-qualified adults in the Middle East. In addition, assessing this situation from the worldwide perspective, it becomes clear that the deprivation of the Syrian youth's education will contribute to the creation of the dangerous geographic spot that may enhance IS-related anxiety worldwide. In particular, one may assume that when people are left without means to survive (and the absence of education implies such future), they will have to apply to the other ways of obtaining at least the basic necessities. Besides, the psychological issues such as stress and life-dissatisfaction may grow into more serious and complex problems. Comprehending the harassments that possess the environment of the open military conflict, it is natural to conclude that the link between the lost educational possibilities and the lack of knowledge is only the tip of the iceberg. While observing this problem more thoroughly, one can suggest that the deprived education in Syria possesses a set of economic, social, psychological, and biological issues.

Moreover, it is possible to presume that the deprivation of education, as a violation of human rights and freedoms, in fact, contributes to the deprivation of other basic human rights that are stated in the UDHR. The next section will observe the UDHR with the aim to link its concepts to the current situation with children education in Syria. Besides, it will survey the ways in which USA and other states strive to decrease the gap between the instituted, and globally accepted human rights and freedoms, and current realities of the Syrian community.

In terms of education deprivation, the most vulnerable population consists of the primary school children (UN News Centre, n. d.). Consider the rationale, the United Nations Children’s Fund reports that the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) closes schools on the territory of its dominion the United Nations Children’s Fund. As a result, 670,000 primary schoolchildren are deprived of the right to get education in their domestic areas (UN News Centre, n. d.). Assessing this information, one can assume that the pupils of elementary schools suffer the most from the denied education. In particular, given that the military conflict lasts already for more than 4 years, it means that high school children at least managed to receive basic education. Similarly, the middle school children obtained enough learning skills to be engaged in self-education; preschoolers remain small and, thus, have chances to enter school in a year or two. Whereas, today's junior schoolchildren are in the most unfavorable position because they cannot learn themselves, and many not have adults who can educate them. Consequently, if the conflicts continue, their chances for an adequate studying will be lost.

It is appropriate to stress that the current children education in Syria resonates with the 26th article of the UDHR. In particular it states: "Everyone has the right to education. Education shall be free, at least in the elementary and fundamental stages. Elementary education shall be compulsory. As it is seen, this statement does not comply with the realities of the Syrians' lives. What makes the things even worse is that the corresponding violation is extended further. For instance, the second art of this article reveals that

Education shall be directed to the full development of the human personality and to the strengthening of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms. It shall promote understanding, tolerance and friendship among all nations, racial or religiousgroups, and shall further the activities of the United Nations for the maintenance of peace.

Without doubt, the Syrian military conflict also denies the second part of person's education rights and freedoms because it prevents constructing and promoting the concepts of tolerance, mutual respect, friendship of nations, and value of peace.

To tame the issue the USA and other states deploy a number of approaches at both governmental and nongovernmental levels. Specifically, the neighboring states launched a great amount of school refuges for Syrian children. The corresponding statistics reveals that Lebanon, Turkey, Egypt, Iraq, and Jordan currently provide education for more than a million Syrian pupils. In particular, 390000 young Syrians study in Lebanon, Turkey (300000), Jordan (215000), Iraq (60000) and Egypt (45000).

Apart from that, "UNICEF and its partners are committed to keeping Syrian children from becoming a 'lost generation'" (UNICEF, n. d.). In particular, this organization actively participates in taming the negative outcomes of crisis by providing local children with the humanitarian assistance. Supporting this claim with the relevant data, it is necessary to refer to "the Current financing for UNICEF education programmes in Lebanon". In frames of these educational programs (2014-2016) the well-developed countries made considerable donations. Specifically, Canada donated 8,890,935$, Germany: 8,513,525 $, US (State Department): 4,221,791 $, Denmark: 3,261,384 $, UK: 1,583,718 $, Norway: 1,558,446$, Kuwait: 991,437 $, Australia: 660,000 $, Switzerland: 635,367 $, and Italy: 213,869$. In addition to governments' endeavors, civil people strive to help the Syrian young by creating charity organizations, donating money and becoming volunteers.

Apart from providing humanitarian help, the world community applies to the preventive measures, which are instituted in policies aimed at mitigating the Syrian crisis. This paragraph is aimed at detecting the corresponding responses of the global authorities towards the discussed military crisis. In particular, in 2011 the regional response came from the League of Arab States initially in a form of a peace plan. Thereafter, the implementation of the peace plan failed and the League "imposed economic sanctions" against the Syrian government (International Coalition for the Responsibility to Project, n. d.). Furthermore, the European Union addressed the Syrian crisis with the similar measures. For instance, in 2011-12 it imposed economic sanctions "including an arms embargo, visa ban and asset freeze, against the Syrian regime" (International Coalition for the Responsibility to Project, n. d.). Besides, in 2013 the General Assembly instituted a resolution aimed at preventing the escalation of the Syrian crisis (International Coalition for the Responsibility to Project, n. d.). The above-stated interventions were adopted with the purpose to increase the chances of the Syrians for the maintenance of their human rights including the right for education.

Revealing personal views on the denied education for Syrian children as a vivid manifestation of human rights violation, I agree that it is a significant issue that must be addressed at the global level. Striving to provide the effective approaches, it is necessary to point out that the use of mass media should be deployed more actively. In particular, the global net's corporations must be encouraged to inform people all over the world about the topicality of the discussed issue attempting to attract as many donators and volunteers as possible. Furthermore, it is appropriate to set more educational refugees for all children coming from Syria. Moreover, in a case of failure to mitigate the Syrian crisis, the world community should consider creating special training programs for the Syrian adults that will allow taking concrete working niches. In this way, it becomes possible to tame the negative outcomes of the deprived education and related social, psychological and biological problems of the Syrian youth. Besides, it will help preventing the development of deviant behaviours and, as a result, the incrimination of the Middle East as well as the entire world.

Summing up the above-mentioned, one should stress that despite the efforts of the world community the escalation of the Syrian crisis continues to expand. In these terms, most local dwellers are deprived of their human rights that are stated in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. In particular, the right of the Syrian children for education is being denied. What makes the things even worse is that attaining a school becomes dangerous for people's life and health. Undoubtedly, this situation results in the increased economic, social, psychological and biological issues. It means that the young generation, especially today's pupils of elementary schools, are at risk of being lost for their society and for the mankind in general. Besides, the lack of education is expected to raise the number of criminal and terroristic organizations. Therefore, the deprivation of education in Syria evokes considerable concerns of the world community. To solve this issue UNICEF launched educational programs for the Syrian youth. It collects donations from most well-developed states in order to provide children and their families with the basic necessities. Moreover, the approximate states, such as Lebanon, Turkey, Egypt, Iraq, and Jordan, set educational refuges for about 1 million of Syrian scholars. Moreover, this issue is being addressed at the individual level, meaning that every person willing to help either as a donator or a volunteer is welcomed to participate in assuring children the right for education.

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