Nose is the most salient feature situated in the center of the human face. It is an organ which is actively incorporated in inspiration. The most pivotal roles of the nose are to strain the atmospheric air before spreading it to the respiratory system and also to supply with the sense of smell. Indeed, it is represented as a means of connection amidst the air of the respiratory duct of the body and the atmospheric air. During the process of breathing, air enters the nostrils, than sent to the nasal cavity, goes to the pharynx and bronchi and finally reaches the lungs (Sandhyarani 2011).
The form of nose is constructed of bones, cartilage and fibrofatty textures. Generally, the human nose is consisted of two parts – external and cavity. The exterior shape of nose depends on the bones and cartilage. Taking into consideration forms and proportions of human nose, they can be systematized into several various groups, such as the Roman (aquiline), the Nubian, the Greek (straight), the snub, the hawk, and the turn-up type. Some ethnic groups can be recognized by the type of nose. For instance, the Europeans are associated with the long, narrow nose with a big elevation and nostrils which are set vertically. The Armenians have very large, long and often crooked nose. The African American are easily to identify not only by their color of skin, however, by their broad and flat nose (Sandhyarani 2011).
Supporting construction of the top part of nose includes bones. The uppermost part at the eye sockets is formed of two rhinal bones that are joined to the frontal bone of the forehead. Those rhinal bones are bound to make the nose bridge. At the edges, the rhinal bones are linked to the sidelong approach of the upper jaw by means of the solid stringy coat. The bottom part of the nose is formed of cartilages. As it was mentioned above, the cartilages create a form of the exterior feature of the nose (Sandhyarani 2011).
The foramens in the nose are called nostrils. They direct to the vestibule which is a part of rhinal cavity with skin and hair. The cartilage dividing the nostrils is named the septal cartilage. Then, the nasal cavity gets covered with the mucous layer that is considered to be very receptive.
The osmetic epithelium consists of receptor cells that turn on the sense of smell. Besides, this epithelium covers the upper part of the rhinal cavity. It may seem strange; however, the nostril does not make up the entire rhinal cavity. They are only the exterior foramens to the nose (Damm 2002).
The cavity of the human nose is considered to be a tunnel with an aperture on the face and on the topmost of the throat. The tunnel (rhinal cavity) is separated into two sides – right and left by means of nasal septum (gristly and bony divider). The top of the rhinal cavity is separated from the front cranial cavity by means of a bone named cribriform plate. The sidelong walls are contiguous to cheek bones. The lower part of the rhinal cavity is divided from the topmost of the mouth by means of palatal bones.
Inside the nose is covered with a thin, humid layer of tissue which is named mucous membrane. It heats up and moistens the air. The membrane is responsible for making mucous that prevents the penetration of microbes, dust and other small, but harmful particles that can irritate the lungs.
Hair within the nostrils plays a very crucial role in filtering and moistening of atmospheric air. If something harmful gets inside the nose, a sneeze comes up and cleanses it.
In other words, hair works as a defendant in opposition to the damaging pathogenous substance which is in the air, such as, for instance dust. Hair grows on the skin which leads to the vestibule, the part of the rhinal cavity above the nostrils. Rhinal hair can vary from being neatly arranged and colored to being black, rough and shaggy.
Deeper in the nose there exist smaller hairs named cilia. They are constantly moving to and fro in order to keep mucous out of the sinuses and back of the nose. Cilia can also cover the air passages and assist getting mucous out of the lungs. The lungs have to be provided with the air which is about 35 degrees centigrade and the level of humidity approximately 95 percent. That is why the nose is responsible for delivering air straight to the lungs, in addition to that keeping the right temperature. Therefore, the cavity is filled in with shelve, named turbinate, which can heat up the air and moisture it right before it gets to the lungs (Damm 2002).
As people get older they start losing hair on the head, thusly, increase the level of hair inside the nose and ears. Moreover, the nasal hair has something in common with the hair from the other part of body, namely, it grows and takes the natural hair color. That is why, when the person turns grey, the hair in his/ her nose turns white. Nevertheless, when the person gets bold, the same does not happen to his/ her rhinal hair.
As for the sinuses, there are four principal pairs of them. The structure of air cells named paranasal sinuses is situated above the eyes in the frontal forehead, below the eyes in the maxillary (cheekbones), amidst the eyes (ethmois) and in back of the rhinal cavity and eyes close to the middle of the head (sphenoid). The paranasal sinuses join with the rhinal cavity by means of several tiny gaps called ostium.
The sinuses are considered to be empty areas inside the bones of the cranium which are covered with mucous membrane called mucosa. If to form the chambers filled with air inside the cranium bones, the sinuses can help to reduce the weight of the head. Besides, they add resonance to the voice. The most important thing is that sinuses tend to assist to secure the eyes and brain in serious damages to the face. They also can contribute to warming and moistening the air that leads to the rhinal passage (Martonen 2002).
In some cases when the narrow foramens that lead from the nose to the sinuses get blocked, the sinuses become infected, that further result into sinusitis. To identify sinusitis, it is vital to pay attention to such symptoms as headache, cough, sore throat, blocked/ runny nose, rhinal stuffiness.
The nose is responsible for carrying several functions, the most principal of which are breathing, sense of smell and taste. Human nose play the role of a channel which inspire and expire air. Moreover, the osmetic centers are located down the roof of the nose. In order to stimulate these centers, smell has to be drawn into the nose and gotten to its roof. The human nose is able to differentiate numerous scents. A lot of people have a perfect sense of smell, however, there some of them who suffer from anosmia, a loss of sense of smell. In addition, the nose helps the taste. In fact, taste is distinguished on the tongue. There exist four perceived tastes: salty, sweet, bitter and sour. The sense of smell carries a pivotal role in the taste. During the process of chewing, the food lets out some chemicals that go up straight to the nose and bring about the osmetic receptors. In cases when the nose is blocked, it is impossible to get the chemicals that bring about the receptors. It is a well-known fact that those who have cold or blocked nose fail to smell and feel the taste of the food (Martonen 2002).
All in all, the structure of the human nose is fragile, since the rhinal bones have tendency to fracture. Nosebleed is also widespread because of the high level of blood inside the lining. Being so small, human nose is inevitable part of the body, which plays life-and-death role in functioning of the entire system.