The USA: Homeland Security in the 21st Century
According to a report published in 2010 by the Department of Homeland Security, in the next five years, the unstable situation in the Middle East and Africa, as well as an imperfect system of entry of foreigners and other major threats to the United States.
The report entitled “Assessing the threat to national security in 2008-2012”, says that the unstable situation in the Middle East and Africa will, as before, promote the growth of radical and terrorist forces, hatred of the United States. At the same time, the terrorists using the gaps in the current system of entry of foreigners could enter the United States to commit crimes. In particular, they can get into the U.S. as refugees or use the visa-free travel between the U.S. and several countries.
Although the use of biological, chemical and nuclear weapons is still the most dangerous terrorist threat for the United States, the possibility of making such attacks is minimal because for the organization “Al Qaeda” and other terrorist organizations, it is very difficult to obtain such weapons. However, the report still says that in the next five years, the terrorist organizations may attempt to attack the United States using the above weapons.
In recent years, the ideologists of the world jihad movement are increasingly called upon to use WMD against the West. “Al-Qaeda” has repeatedly threatened to use a weapon of mass destruction against the United States and its allies. On various radical Islamic sites, there is appropriate promotional literature. Theorists of contemporary radical Islamism focus on several aspects of the problem. The first issue is gaining access to WMD. It is recommended to look for chemicals necessary for the production of weapons of mass destruction in the former Soviet Union. Also, it is recommended to cooperate with regimes that possess WMD. Second, is to prepare special units capable to choose a goal and use WMD. Third, is to bring the ideological basis for the use of WMD.
On September 28, the leader of “Al Qaeda” in Iraq, Abu Hamza al-Muhajir called technicians, chemists, physicists to join the jihad in Iraq: “You will be able to apply your scientific knowledge in the battle”. He offers to test biological weapons and so-called dirty bomb on U.S. bases in Iraq: “The U.S. military base is ideal for testing biological and dirty bombs.”
In 2003-2004 in Iraq, a group carrying out research of chemical weapons was destroyed. This group has been linked to the radical Islamist organization “Jaish Muhammad” and has had some success in its development.
Since the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, the United States adopted a number of measures to prevent possible terrorist activity in the future. As the terrorist attacks are a threat to the entire international community, there is a necessity for clear measures to counter terrorism. In the United States, to ensure the proper level of security, fundamentally new structures were created including a set of security services and the goals to achieve optimal interaction of all departments in order to prevent the threat of terrorist acts and the impacts of natural disasters. This structure was the Department of Homeland Security, which combined the previously existing security services and specially created an agency designed to implement new methods of combating terrorism.
On September 20, 2001, in a speech to the nation and the Congress, the U.S. President George W. Bush announced the creation of the new agency on national security - the Office of Homeland Security (Office of Homeland Security). According to the President's speech, the new agency was to combine more than a dozen security services.
On October 8, 2001, the Office of Homeland Security was officially presented. The main tasks of the Office the President called the interaction with all departments and agencies, organizations and local authorities in the field of safety and coordination of their activities. Also, change and amendment of the U.S. national security strategy in respect to challenges and threats to the state were included in the tasks of the Office.
According to the current American political culture, it is in the national security doctrine that the basic principles of other major components of the international policy of the USA are laid down – the principles of its foreign policy and military strategy. The National Security Strategy of President Barack Obama published on May 26, 2010 caused a great interest from the part of the international expert community.
In the structure of the document, there are two most important parts. In the first (Strategic Approach), a brief assessment of the international situation and the basic principles which form the basis of the Strategy 2010 is offered. In the second part (Advancing our interests), the U.S. national interests are defined and the ways to achieve them are presented.
The main objective of the strategy is the national renewal to restore the U.S. global leadership. The leadership involves military power, economic competitiveness, moral authority, and active participation in the international policy processes on a global scale and efforts to streamline the international system.
Modern nuclear weapons are currently available in stock at many countries. Naturally, all types of nuclear weapons can be divided into categories. For example, nuclear weapons include guns, which uses nuclear ammunition, submarines, and nuclear mines. Each of the above stores, in turn, vary in power. They are divided into super-small, small, medium, large, and mega.
Any type of weapon is entirely dependent on its purpose and design. The main body of each of the ammunition of this nature has special grooves that can be used to inspect a good auto battery system of a nuclear device. To training charges, special markings are applied, and in some countries, the containers in which nuclear weapons are being trafficked are marked by paint of a certain color. For example, in Pakistan, this type of weapon is rather developed.
When the development of nuclear weapons started in many countries including Pakistan, a nuclear program has been developed. This happened in the seventies. Essentially, this program is aimed at developing nuclear weapons with uranium. As it is stated in the available data, this state has special technological capabilities of rather high class to an expedited line to produce nuclear devices of a certain weight and power. Quite an objective condition for confirmation of this aspect is the fact that Pakistan is independent in providing special fissionable materials because in many of the districts of the state, there are supplies of uranium ore needed for the purpose. In addition, many sources have reported that the Pakistani scientists began to show a direct interest in the use of plutonium, as well in order to create nuclear ammunition.
Importantly, the country has all the necessary conditions to achieve success in the programs mentioned above. To be more precise, the state has the necessary scientific staff and the modern technology used to enrich uranium as much as possible. In addition, the plant in a big city not only provides the station with nuclear fuel but also creates new reserves for future stations. In fact, the nuclear program is under the influence of important factors, which help it to successfully develop further.
Today, China, as well, has a wide range of nuclear weapons on land, air and sea-based with carriers of strategic and tactical purposes. Nuclear arsenal of China by Handbook Military Balance 2010 includes 66 intercontinental ballistic missiles, 118 medium-range ballistic missiles, 204 short-range ballistic missiles, cruise missiles and 54 long-range land-based. In addition, 36 ballistic missiles of submarines are considered to be deployed. China has become second only to the Russian nuclear power to create mobile ground systems of strategic ballistic missiles “Dunfyn-21” with a range of 1,700-1,800 kilometers, “Dunfyn-31” that can overcome 8000 kilometers.
The potential seems to be quite modest in comparison with the strategic nuclear forces of the United States and Russia. However, it is enough to feel confident in all aspects of the great country. That is important - hypothetically allowing the idle to inflict unacceptable damage in a retaliatory strike the People's Liberation Army of China, and to the large-scale military operations against the armed forces of any nuclear state. A further R&D and economic growth of China will provide the possibility of putting its strategic nuclear counter-strike and counter nuclear missile strikes.
Currently, the Alliance led by the U.S. gained an overwhelming superiority over any State, reliance on nuclear deterrence is a political rather than a military factor in national security. According to one of the provisions of the coalition's military strategy, the United States bears global responsibility for the defense of democracy on a global scale. In this case, the emphasis is not on the defense but on the preventive action outside the NATO area and to deter potential enemies from waging war against the Western world.
However, the strategy of nuclear deterrence does not provide specific guidance on the implementation of its provisions. They are detailed in a number of other documents and statements of some military and political leaders of the United States. In particular, it is argued that, as in the past, nuclear deterrence is lawful when all the forces and opportunities for the peaceful resolution of the conflict have been exhausted and is intended to convince the opposing side in a rather formidable military potential of the United States and demonstrate its willingness to act decisively in the event of the outbreak of war.
In the new political realities, the United States reserves the right to use nuclear weapons in case of the use by other states of nuclear, biological, chemical or other weapons of mass destruction against the United States, its allies and friendly countries, as well as when the policy of the individual states is a threat to their national interests. Moreover, even the potential for a country to become a nuclear if it has the necessary technical capabilities, is considered sufficient to substantiate and justify preemptive strikes. So it was, for example, in the operation against Iraq: “Desert Storm”.
Opponents hardly will dare to challenge the U.S. military in the traditional conflict, but they are able to use asymmetric means, according to the authors of one of the reports concerning national security. They recommend considering in the context of weapons of mass destruction on such “non-traditional threats”, such as the use of electromagnetic pulses.
“Well-coordinated … attack could harm national security, block trade and destroy U.S. power supply networks” - the authors of one of the reports write.
There is no doubt the fact that the change of eras changes the security systems, so with the emergence of new risks and threats, fears and various types of weapons, new factors of development, the need for a new security paradigm and the security system implementing it in practice, is arised.
First, it is indisputable determination dilemmas of human security and social by set of values and ideals, the changing internal and external environment, etc. Thus, the basic idea of the U.S. national security strategy, as was noted above, is that the statement of the global and the U.S. security cannot be properly without America's leadership in the world, without its economic and military superiority over other nations. This implies strengthening the state's role in the national security of America. In other words, it is increasingly seen security in the light of the triad of “security of the individual - national security - international security” (this model has gained special significance in light of the events of September 11, 2001), and in this scheme, individual subcontracts most of the concerns of his security to the State.
The U.S. are prepared to make war of the sixth generation and have at least a medium-term overwhelming military superiority over any potential adversary in the “conventional” weapons. But it is obvious that the modern state, even such as the U.S. is not able to eliminate hanging over it growing amount of alternative and previously unseen threats. Many of the issues that directly affect the various aspects of national security of each state require joint constructive and purposeful effort. No state has sufficient resources that would guarantee it without a coordinated and jointly organized with other States actions, provision of the economic, social, demographic, security, protection from leaks of weapons of mass destruction to the uncontrolled structure, a successful fight against international crime, the prevention of global environmental disasters etc. Thus, it is evident that to ensure own security states must act together to solve common problems jointly. To this end, the state is more or less included in the integration process, which means nothing more than a concession by it of part of its sovereignty in favor of the solving of common problems, including those directly related to its own safety.
Due to this, in the process of the development and implementation of national security strategy, it is appropriate to focus on the following principles:
- The modern concept of national security must be based on national interests, in which territorial is the main, but one of a number of measurements.
- Priorities of the national security require a derogation from the provisions of the classical doctrine of sovereignty.
- The growing trend of “diffusion” between national and international security should be taken into account.
- Special attention should be given to the integration processes to design solutions to common problems and maintaining international security.